Journal of Quranic and Social Studies https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS <p>JQSS is the research Journal of HRA (AL-HIDAYA RESEARCH ACADEMY (Rg)Balochistan Quetta, it is a bi-annual journal and offers double-blind peer review, started at 2021.</p> <p> </p> AL-HIDAYA RESEARCH ACADMY (rg) Balochistan Quetta en-US Journal of Quranic and Social Studies 2790-5632 Extremism and Terrorism in Pakistan in 21st Century: Changing Dynamics, New Challenges, Security Governance, Viable Policy Option https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/128 <p>Pakistan is playing the role of frontline state in countering terrorism at global level .The trends in terrorism are diversity ,decentralization ,democratization ,disinformation, economic depression and violation of human rights are shaping the future of violent extremism and terrorism . The terrorism is emerged in various forms: kidnappings, hijacking ,bomb scares ,bombing ,assassinations ,cyber attacks and use of chemicals ,biological ,nuclear and radiological weapons etc . There are new trends of extremism and terrorism in newly emerging districts of Pakistan. The Pakistani state is confronting the external and internal challenges, traditional and non-traditional security threats with new dimensions and dynamism. These issues are related to security governance of the state. There are viable policy options and pragmatic strategies to counterterrorism in Pakistan. The research work will rely on books, research papers, magazines and internet websites etc. The study is divided in introduction, literature review, objectives, research questions, methodology and conclusion. The situational approach will be applied to gauge various dimensions of terrorism in Pakistan. The aggression frustration theory will be applied in this research to assess terrorist behavior. The strategic model of terrorism will be applied that terrorists attack civilian population and inflict harm masses and public places. The data will be analyzed in the light of above facts to draw the conclusion. </p> Dr. Hussan Ara Magsi Faiza mir Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 01 12 10.5281/zenodo.12738192 The Influence of the Pakistani Army on the Formulation of Foreign Policy: A Comparative Analysis of the Musharraf and Bajwa era https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/125 <p>Foreign policies function as a structural design in the politics of states. Foreign policy is the insurance to maintain national security, the stability of the economy and establishes international relations with other states. While state institutions like the army, the judiciary, and the civil bureaucracy help and strengthen it. Specifically, the military supports the functioning of the state by defending borders and working under civilian governments around the world. But in the case of Pakistan, the army plays an important role in the formulation of foreign policy. Therefore, in this study, we examine the role and influence of the military in the formulation of Pakistan's foreign policy. The study will analyze the role of two military generals; Musharraf and Bajwa's role in the making of foreign policy. Furthermore, the objective is to examine the differences in foreign policies of the Musharraf government and the Bajwa era. However, the theoretical basis of the study will be Realism. The secondary literature available openly in the forms of books, journals, and media commentaries will be used for this short study.</p> <p>Keywords: foreign policy, military, international politics, realism.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Hina Butt Muhammad Salman Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 13 25 10.5281/zenodo.12741464 AI and Diplomacy: A New Era for Nuclear Arms Control https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/129 <p>This in-depth analysis explains the complex implications and uses of AI technologies in influencing international security as it critically investigates the relationship between AI and nuclear arms control. The review begins by placing the difficulties surrounding nuclear arms control in context and emphasizes the critical role artificial intelligence plays in this field. The advantages and drawbacks of AI integration are carefully examined with particular reference to nuclear weapons detection, arms control agreement verification, and predictive modeling. Using both qualitative and quantitative data from primary and secondary sources, including surveys, interviews, scholarly publications, and official documents, the review uses a mixed-methods approach. To produce a thorough and exacting evaluation of the research questions, the data is analyzed using a variety of methodologies, including content analysis, statistical analysis, and scenario analysis. Including case studies on major agreements, like the START-3 agreement and the Iran nuclear deal, the review offers concrete insights into the useful application of AI in real-world scenarios. The ethical implications of AI’s role in nuclear arms control are examined in detail, highlighting the necessity of putting safeguards and procedures in place to guarantee deployment that is both responsible and moral. The conclusion’s summary of the main findings highlights AI’s transformative potential and stresses the need to address ethical issues to ensure a more secure future for everyone on the planet. This academic investigation offers significant contributions to the current discourse on the intersection of artificial intelligence and nuclear arms control, offering insightful information to scholars, decision-makers, and interested parties.</p> Ms. Misbah Atta Zainab Sadiq Sadiq Dr. Hanna-e-Kalbi Kalbi Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 26 39 10.5281/zenodo.12744354 Ethno-nationalism, Linguistic Identity and the Political Autonomy: A comparative study of Mahagujarat & Bahawalpur https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/123 <p>Ethnicity becomes impressionable when it achieves the awareness of its uniqueness. There will be least a country in the world which is based on a nation ideology. In modern times the concept of nation is changed into nation-state in which different ethnic groups develop an identity as ethno-nationalism. As India and Pakistan had been a colony of the British crown and both the countries gained independence at the same time. But in case of policy making related dekmarcation of the states and autonomy, both countries have opted different methodologies. In this regard many of princely states had to fight for their autonomy according to the Indian Act 1935. History witnessed commonalities in both the countries Pakistan &amp; India related to the issue of autonomy on behalf of ethnicity. In 1970 the Gujarat achieved its federalization on account of ethnic disparity but in case of Bhawalpur, princely state has great hindrance in achieving federalization although the model is same. There are many things common in the model of achieving federalization in &nbsp;&nbsp;Gujarat (India) and the Bahawalpur (Pakistan). The study will examine the model of autonomy for the Mahagujarat and the Bahawalpur keeping in view the ethno nationalism and linguistic disparities.</p> Muhammad Salman Salman Hina Butt Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 40 59 10.5281/zenodo.12744510 The Determinants and Consequences of Smoking Trends Among the Youths of Balochistan https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/126 <p>Smoking is indeed the first ladder that elevates youth to the culmination of heavy drugs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the understanding of youth about the smoking orientation; the factors which are promoting smoking trends and the consequences of the smoking behavior. The study was carried out on the positivist approach of quantitative research study, where the data was collected from youth of Balochistan about the smoking trends. The data was gathered through simple random sampling technique from the sample size of 200 individuals/respondents. The findings outlined the company or the peer groups and the inadequate parental supervision are the major reasons turning the youth to smoking behavior, besides this the study found that e-cigarette and different flavors in e-cigarette have accelerated the trend among the youth. Moreover, the study resulted that the smoking habit is causing health issues and familial and social stigma. The study suggests that smoking is a harmful risk factor subverting the most crucial segment of the society. The government should revisit the tobacco controlling policies, intervene to restrict perceived accessibility to cigarette and take all possible measure to discourage smoking.</p> Dr. Muhammad Rahim Prof. Dr. Muhammad Usman Tobawal Hakeem Ullah Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 60 75 10.5281/zenodo.12745385 Analysis of ICC Trade Standard for LC Issuance (UCP-600) with relevant AAOIFI Shariah Standards https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/127 <p>Lack of Shariah compliant International Standards for Trade in particular and other banking transactions in general may cause considerate drip to growth of Islamic Financial Institutions. In this paper an attempt has been made to dwell the subject by analyzing the ICC standard of “UCP-600” in preview of AAIOFI Shariah Standards. Generally, in Islamic Financial Institutions Documentary Credits are executed under two modes known to be as Murabaha and Wakala. The analysis reveals that in principal AAIOFI Shariah Standard allows the use of UCP-600 in Documentary Credits. However, certain clauses necessitate evaluation in accordance with the guidelines outlined in Shariah Standards, particularly when Documentary Credits are conducted under the Islamic mode of Murabaha. Additionally, Shariah Standards consider the validity and permissibility of other contracts executed during the opening, execution, and retirement of Documentary Credits. Provisions such as charging interest, trading impermissible commodities, and providing remunerative guarantees are strictly prohibited for Documentary Credits issued by Islamic Financial Institutions.The analytical section of the paper examines all such clauses with specific reference to relevant Shariah Standards. In the end few recommendations have also been deliberated to elucidate the contravening clauses of UCP-600 with AAIOFI Shariah Standards.</p> Nabeel ur Rehman Dr. Danish Ahmed Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 76 97 10.5281/zenodo.12775276 اسلامی ریاست میں عوام کو نظم و ضبط کا پابند بنانے کے طریقے تعلیمات نبوی ﷺ کی روشنی میں https://jqss.org/index.php/JQSS/article/view/118 <p>There were great revolutions in the world, some of which had far-reaching effects on human history, but the revolution brought by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was in every sense the greatest revolution in human history. Its greatness lies in the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not only improved the appearance of the nation, but this revolution changed even within them. Most importantly, this revolution reached its peak in a short span of only twenty-three years and the whole of Arabia was transformed. Thirsting for each other's blood became grateful to each other as if they were a wall of lead. The question is, what was the strategy on the basis of which such a great revolution took place in humanity, and in the short period of thirteen years, such a group of highly trained people was prepared that as soon as a state (in the form of Medina) was found, each member of the pre-trained party handled their assigned task so smoothly as if they were made for it. Human training done with this level of skill can only be the characteristic of a prophet. He carved every person associated with Islam and made him a diamond out of coal. In this regard, an important point in the prophetic strategy adopted by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the establishment of discipline. He disciplined the people not only at the individual level but also at the collective level, which led to the establishment of a true welfare state. This research article first highlights the teachings of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to organize the masses through worship. This is followed by a light on the Prophet's teachings of maintaining discipline in private and personal life, and finally on the Prophet's principles of maintaining discipline in social life and interpersonal matters.</p> Maria Khalil Dr. Shabana Qazi Copyright (c) 2024 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2024-07-18 2024-07-18 4 2 01 15 10.5281/zenodo.12746644