Journal of Quranic and Social Studies <p>JQSS is the research Journal of HRA (AL-HIDAYA RESEARCH ACADEMY (Rg)Balochistan Quetta, it is a bi-annual journal and offers double-blind peer review, started at 2021.</p> <p> </p> AL-HIDAYA RESEARCH ACADMY (rg) Balochistan Quetta en-US Journal of Quranic and Social Studies 2790-5632 فہم حدیث سے متعلق محدثین کا منہج ومعیار اور امتیازی خصوصیات (تحقیقی جائزہ) <p>Islam is a universal religion in which is guidance and direction for human beings till the Day of judgment and it is the quality of Islam that it contains the solution of all kinds of problems of mankind till the Day of judgment.There is no doubt that the text of the Quran and Sunnah are based on comprehensiveness which has that status and considered the principle and law in Islam.But whenever a new issue occurred in human life, the people of wisdom and knowledge has found the solution by looking into texts of Quran and Sunnah in the light of certain rules and regulations. This religious endeavour has been termed in Islamic literature as inference, effort or jurisprudence in Islamic literature.Although the term jurisprudence (Fiqah)was generally used for understanding religion in the early days of Islam, when the scientific arts developed. Hadith and jurisprudence (Fiqah)became two separate terms, so the people who used to work in the field of Hadith became known as muhaddithin (Muhaddiseen)and the people who used to provide their services in the field of Fiqah became known jurists (Fiqah).Now the method of the two have Ibid became different in the inference from the shariah texts.The following article discuss the principles of the muhaddihin and the jurists on the basis of which they derived rulings from Hadiths of the prophet and then at end a comparative analysis of the two presented.The second chapter deals with the different periods of jurisprudence (Fiqah)and the general inference of the four school of thoughts. The third chapter deals with the methodology and standards of Muhaddithin and jurists regarding the understanding of Hadith, while the fourth and final chapter provide comparative study of the methodology of Muddihin and four jurists (Fuqaha).</p> Muhammad Yousaf Salah ud Deen Syed Muhammad Haroon Agha Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-19 2023-11-19 3 2 01 18 10.5281/zenodo.10156201 اشاعت اسلام کے اصول و آداب (قرآن و حدیث اور اسوہ رسولﷺ کی روشنی میں) <p>In this article propagation and publication of Islam and its principles have been explained that how the Holy Prophet obeyed the religion and told the people that Islam guides every aspect of human life which is called Sharia, and the main purpose of this education is to convey the message of Allah to the people and Allah should be considered as Lord. In his attributes, powers, and rights no one should be involved while explaining the principle of invitation and preaching it has been said that people should be called to the path of Allah with wisdom and good sermons and polite language should be used in arguments. In the eyes of Allah, the only action is acceptable to him which is done for his pleasure from this point of view, the religion Islam has a unique place in the world because in Islam people are called to goodness and prevented from evil so that an abstract society can be formed. Our aim is to share Islam to others with selves’ improvement.</p> Musarat Jahan Ansari Muhammad Siddique Ullah Dr. Sana Jadoon Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-05 2023-12-05 3 2 19 34 10.5281/zenodo.10257372 پاکستان میں تخفیف غربت کے ادارہ جاتی اقدامات: اسلامی تعلیمات کی روشنی میں تحقیقی جائزہ <p>Poverty is a reality that no one can deny. Because there are poor people all over the world. Economically weak people are left behind in every sphere of life. Islam also encourages improving economic life. In the Holy Qur'an, Allah Ta'ala has ordered cooperation with the poor people and has also announced a great reward for this action. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not only issued orders to help the poor, but he was always seen following these orders. Islam has given special emphasis on poverty alleviation. It has given a solid and comprehensive program by following which it is possible to reduce poverty in the society. In this article, a review of the institutional measures taken for poverty alleviation in Pakistan is presented. Along with this, efforts have been made to bring forward the Islamic teachings which are meant for poverty alleviation. Because this problem can be eliminated only by following the principles of sanhar given by Islam. Not only is poverty a hindrance to social development, but it also has a profound effect on the morals and beliefs of the affected person. Because Allah Almighty has made the right to earn an income equal for all human beings and the true relationship of livelihood is with Allah Almighty and he is also the helper of every person. Therefore, the eradication of poverty is possible only if the economic system given by Allah is implemented.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Usama Ali Dr. Ghulam Haider Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-07 2023-12-07 3 2 35 50 10.5281/zenodo.10288904 مذہب کا شاعری و نثرِ اقبال میں اظہار <p>The center and axis of Allama Iqbal's thoughts is the religion of Islam. He has used his poetry as a medium for conveying specific purposes. His education started with religious education. The element of religion has been predominant in the expression of their emotions and feelings. He was not influenced by Western thoughts, he tried to spread Islamic thought in the world through his words. Religious influences on his poetry are prominent. The echoes of the Muslim renaissance can be clearly seen in his prose. In his sermons, he made the questions raised in the western minds the subject and wrote on these discussions in private letters. In this sense, his final sermon, "Possibilities of Religion," was the final sermon in which he presented religious concepts in a fresh and contemporary manner. In both prose and poetry, he has discussed his religious experiences and views. His philosophical and theological ideas are crucial for investigation. The Nation of Islam is one, he underscored. Also based on religion is their national identity concept. Allama Iqbal's beliefs on the Ummah's oneness are heavily influenced by Sir Syed, Jamaluddin Afghani.</p> Dr. Muhammad Asghar Sial Dr. Muhammad Rafiq ul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 3 2 51 58 10.5281/zenodo.10349348 اسلام میں عیدین کی اہمیت وفضیلت، علمی وتحقیقی جائزہ <p>Festival celebrations are a common phenomenon in every culture, representing certain cultural, social, and communal aspects of society. However, Islamic culture associates celebrations with religious values and introduces two official festivals, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, in the lunar Islamic calendar. Muslims celebrate Eid al-Fitr at the end of the month of Ramadan, while Eid al-Adha is celebrated on the tenth of the month of Dhu al-Hijja. These two festivals do not mark any historical events; rather, they encourage Muslim societies and individuals to offer thanks to Allah Almighty and to demonstrate mercy, compassion, and sympathy for those who are less privileged. This article is an attempt to explore the spiritual message enshrined in the Islamic philosophy of celebrating Eid. The article also provides a detailed review of the related Quranic verses, Prophetic narrations, and Islamic jurisprudence.</p> Syed Muhammad Hanif Agha Dr. Noor ul Haq Dr. Kaleem Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 3 2 59 70 10.5281/zenodo.10365069 حلال غذا سے متعلق شرعی ضوابط <p>Diet is the apparent survival of human being, as well as the basic and fundamental need of every human being. It recognized that food has most important in any human life. The physical protection of mental and spiritual health is based on human diet. The effects of diet are on both private and public aspects of human life. The performance of good and evil in life is also related to diet. If the food is pure the person himself, the pure, and the attributes of the person become a useful part of the society for others, so that the world also becomes a path of good and hereafter. If the diet is unclean, the actions that are released from the human body are bad, and such a person, for himself and especially for religion, Islam is the basic unit of life. Therefore, Islam has emphasized a lot of food, Islam only corrects pure things for humans and prevents the use of dirty and unclean things. It is in the Quran: "people ask you what things are lawful for them"? Say unto you that all pure things are lawful for them. In the second place, "all pure things are lawful for them, and all dirty things are forbidden." the summary of religious orders is to adopt two things lawful and to take away from committing haram. If the summary of the whole religion is permissible, then it is permissible for them to do so. There are effects of forbidden food that are coming in front of time, every human is seeking paradise, and the way the person wears paradise.</p> Marghoob Aziz ur Rehman Abdul Rehman Fawad Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 3 2 71 95 10.5281/zenodo.10397717 بیویوں کےمابین قسم : لسان الحکام فی معرفۃ الاحکام کی روشنی میں <p>Islam stands as a harmonious faith, thoughtfully attuned to the intricacies of human psychology. It is not uncommon for scholars and observers from the East to raise concerns regarding the frequency of marriages in Islam, suggesting that it may inadvertently perpetuate gender oppression by permitting polygamy. Nevertheless, a closer examination reveals that this is not an avenue for oppression but rather a safeguard for modesty, with the very essence of marriage rooted in the preservation of virtue.The profound wisdom behind this allowance lies in the understanding that human desires can ebb and flow with changing circumstances, including variations in climate. In cases where these desires become overwhelming and there is no provision for a subsequent marriage, the question arises: why uphold the sanctity of modesty? Thus, Islam, emerging as a force to quell discord, vice, and societal turmoil, has extended the privilege of entering into up to four marriages simultaneously. It is crucial to underline that this permission comes with stringent conditions, articulated in the realm of Islamic jurisprudence as 'Qasam'.</p> Dr. Shabir Ahmed Muhammad Rashid Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 96 103 10.5281/zenodo.10473125 نبی ﷺ کی مکی اور مدنی زندگی کا تقابلی جائزہ <p>Prophet Muhammad (SAW) is the most influential figure in the entire history of mankind who reformed the most ignorant, uncivilized, brutal worrior and violant assassinator Arabs into civilized, peaceful and men of knowledge and wisdom in a short span of time (almost 23 years). Accustomed to idolatry were transformed into custodian of Tauheed and got uniformed as the beeds of neckless. The world’s famous writer Micheal H. Hart has categorized the hundred most successful men according to the level of their prosperity in his most famous book “The Hundred”. Despite of being a Christain, he has mentioned the name of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) at the top and Prophet Esa (AS) as third in the human history and he himself depicts the reason to keep Prophet Muhammad (SAW) on the top by saying that: “He was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels.” (Pg: 3) While evaluating the profound life of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), two spans of time are found; Makki era and Madni era. The stratigies and activities of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) appear differently in both of the eras for implementation of Allah’s word and transformation of the mankind. The paper aims to describe the transformation of the policies of Prophat Muhammad (SAW) according to the need of time from Makki era to Madni Era. It elaborates how Prophet Muhammad (SAW) kept on changing his preaching stratigies as well as social and political activities while keeping in view the conditions and circumstances in both of the eras. Moreover the paper also aims to highlight His dimensions in both of the eras in order to evaluate how He brought such a great revolution in such a short span of time.</p> Maria khalil Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 3 2 104 120 10.5281/zenodo.10477287 ڈیجیٹل اثاثوں کی میراث <p>This research pertains to a legal advancement in the field of inheritance, as the increasing use of the internet and technology has made various services such as email, social media, various websites, digital currencies, and various applications easily accessible to people, bringing convenience and ease to all aspects of life, including education, business, media, marketing, and more. Due to this tremendous progress, we can confidently say that we are living in a digital era. While this revolution has provided humanity with many conveniences, it has also given rise to various legal issues that require attention and solutions, which align with the conditions set by Allah for a Muslim. The challenges arising from these technological revolutions are numerous, but this article will focus on highlighting the legal aspects of digital heritage or "Taraka." In this research, we will delve into the details of this issue, defining digital heritage and discussing its importance for users and their heirs. Additionally, we will clarify user rights concerning digital applications and shed light on the nature of contracts between service providers. We aim to explore the legal consensus on digital heritage through the perspectives and deductions of esteemed jurists.</p> Ameer Muhammad Dr. M. Ammad ul Haque Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 3 2 121 135 10.5281/zenodo.10526304 بلوچستان میں فرقہ واریت:تحقیقی مطالعہ(اردو ادب کے تناظر میں) <p>Balochistan is a region that is facing various social problems. Among these social problems 21st century is the source of many. Sectarianism is also one such social problem which has proved to be a very important factor in creating various problems. This leads to social discrimination, unrest, disorder, terrorism, religious extremism, fanaticism and other crimes. In the constitutional protection by using the term sects in a positive sense. That is why it is growing more day by day. Its roots are getting stronger day by day due to its social acceptance. This important social problem of Balochistan has been made a subject by the writers of different literary genres of Urdu. In this paper, the causes and effects of sectarianism have been described.</p> Gul Ghutai Prof. Dr. Khalid Mahmood Khattak Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-01 2023-12-01 3 2 136 146 10.5281/zenodo.10822810 From Ideology to Economics: Understanding the Conflict between two Countries <p>Religious and ideological disparities have contributed to tensions between the two nations. The division of British India in 1947 along religious lines created a deep-seated divide, leading to ongoing conflicts. A key factor is the territorial dispute over Kashmir. Both countries claim Kashmir, resulting in multiple wars and persistent tensions. Political, military, and economic interests, as well as national pride, drive this dispute. India and Pakistan both seek regional dominance in South Asia. Kashmir’s strategic location near China adds complexity. Control over Kashmir allows Pakistan a land link with China, while India sees it as crucial for its territorial integrity. The legacy of the 1947 partition of British India plays a significant role. Along religious lines, the partition caused riots and mass migrations, leaving a lasting impact on relations. International Involvement: Global powers have strategic and economic interests in the region, influencing the conflict dynamics. The international community has been concerned with various attempts at mediation and resolution. The G20 summit, which India is hosting in 2023, is another platform where the Kashmir issue may be raised or sidelined by the two countries, depending on their strategies and objectives. Pakistan has opposed India’s decision to hold a G20 meeting in Srinagar, the capital of Indian-administered Kashmir. Conversely, India has asserted its sovereignty over the entire region and dismissed Pakistan’s objections. The G20 summit may also offer an opportunity for dialogue and cooperation between India and Pakistan on other global issues, such as climate change, economy, and development. Kashmir’s rich natural resources, including fruits, saffron, and minerals, offer economic benefits. India and Pakistan aim to benefit from these resources and tourism potential, adding another layer to the conflict. The India-Pakistan conflict is complex, involving religious, ideological, territorial, historical, geopolitical, and economic factors. Resolving this multifaceted issue requires addressing all these dimensions comprehensively. To research the India-Pakistan conflict, we can employ a multidisciplinary research methodology to comprehensively address the various dimensions involved: Historical Analysis, case studies, geopolitical analysis, and economic analysis.</p> Ms. Shafia Jamil Ms. Misbah Atta Aaliaba Sajjad Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-17 2023-11-17 3 2 1 14 10.5281/zenodo.10149946 Death Anxiety among Hospitalized Patients: A Gender Based Comparison <p>Objectives: Present research purpose is to investigate and compare the level of death anxiety among male and female hospitalized patients in Balochistan. Place and duration: the research was conducted in various hospital of district Quetta and Makuran Division, Balochistan and took 6 months for completion. Sample and methods: Total sample for the study encompassed 50 hospitalized patients that includes male [n= 27, M (SD) = 51.41 (6.541)] and female [n=23, M (SD) = 49.04(6.630)] admitted in various hospitals of Balochistan. Measure: Informed Consent Form and Death Anxiety Scales (Donald Templer, 1970) was utilized for any level of death anxiety. Analysis: For assessing and comparing death anxiety among two gender groups. Descriptive analysis and independent sample t- test was conducted. Results: Results indicate substantial death anxiety among hospitalized patients of Balochistan, but there were non- significant differences among male and female on the levels of death anxiety.</p> Shahid Ali Dr. Saima Ambreen Dr. Sara Mehmood Durrani Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 3 2 15 23 10.5281/zenodo.10157052 Socio-Cultural Challenges to Women’s Political Participation in Makran, Balochistan <p><em>This research paper explores the socio-cultural challenges to women's political participation in Makran division of Balochistan, Pakistan. The study uses a comprehensive literature review and a sample survey to identify the barriers that hinder women's political participation, including cultural and societal norms. The study uses randomly selected primary data of 310 respondents using semi-structured Questionnaire. The findings of this research elucidated that there are significant social and cultural challenges to women’s political participation in Makran region. As a consequence, women have a weak position in the political setup.&nbsp; The findings have significant implications for policymakers, civil society organizations, and advocates working towards promoting gender equality and inclusive political systems that reflect the diversity and interests of all citizens.</em></p> Sidra Abdul Ghafoor Mumtaz Ali Baloch Ghulam Murtaza Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-21 2023-11-21 3 2 24 36 10.5281/zenodo.10182358 Women’s Political Empowerment in Balochistan: A Focus on Political Literacy Among Policymakers <p>Political Empowerment of women in Balochistan is debatable in sense of how policy and the process of policymaking defined with reference to the knowledge, attitude and practices of policymakers. In 2001 the Devolution plan in Pakistan gave 33% representation for women in the local government system nationwide. The women political empowerment (WPE) is mostly taken in institutional context in the available literature; the significance of this research is to highlight the prevalence level of political literacy as a source to assess the policy makers to see the actual progress of the women political empowerment. In Balochistan the legislated empowerment is not succeeded because the policy makers are known about the institutional context and not known about the societal context of WPE.&nbsp; KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice) framework is used to examine the political literacy of policy makers in context to WPE. Purposive sampling is being used in this respect. The study would be useful to enable government to make effective policymaking to meet the contemporary challenges of women political empowerment in and around Balochistan.</p> Dr. Rubeena Batool Mr. Shah Khalid Baloch Ms. Nasreen Samar Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-25 2023-11-25 3 2 37 48 10.5281/zenodo.10206652 Role of the federal Sharia court in the elimination of interest from Pakistan’s economy <p>The Islamic Republic of Pakistan, whose constitution binds all institutions to the revival of the Islamic system, follows a 20-year legal battle by the Federal Sharia Court to rid the country of usurious economy and the recent decision to abolish usury by 2022. It has entered the next phase in which judicial, constitutional, administrative and interest barriers are in place, which require concerted and serious efforts to overcome. Instead of getting entangled in legal gimmicks and tricks during the five-year grace period given by the Federal Shariat Court, according to the correct Islamic thought and leadership, the government and related institutions will not repeat the mistake that was made in the 90s and which resulted in financial and They are still suffering in the form of economic difficulties. Therefore, the elimination of interest from the economic system of Pakistan is very necessary so that the inhabitants of this Muslim country can achieve the goals of establishing their state.</p> Niamat Ullah Prof. Dr. Sahibzada Baz Muhammad Fehmida Baloch Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 3 2 49 58 10.5281/zenodo.10357383 Two Verses (2:60 and 2:61) of Surah Al-Baqarah, Comparative Study of Brahui Translation Pattern. <p>This research paper aims to analyze and compare the Brahui translation patterns in two selected verses from Surah Al-Baqarah (Chapter 2) of the Quran. The study focuses on the linguistic aspects of translation, particularly examines how different cases, pronouns, verb inflections, and phrases are employed in translating the Arabic text into Brahui in two distinct verses. The verses chosen for analysis are 2:60 and 2:61, and the focus will be on the usage of different grammatical cases, pronouns, and verb inflections. The paper utilizes primary and secondary sources of Brahui translations, namely those by Dinpuri (1916) and Dinpuri (2019), as well as Lehri Alasari (1992). By conducting a comparative analysis of these translations, the paper aims to shed light on the specific linguistic characteristics of the Brahui language and its patterns in Quranic translation.</p> Liaquat Ali Sani Muneer Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 3 2 59 70 10.5281/zenodo.10431359 Indian Ocean: A Trade Route of Women Trafficking <p>Women trafficking is not a new phenomenon. Women trafficking became an established international industry. Women trafficking is the modern form of old slavery. Indian Ocean is the common path of women trafficking all over world. Women are trafficked for labour, begging, forcible marriages, for exploitation, to serve in sex industry, and to sell their body organs etc. The ship contains the millions of young girls through Indian ocean which are trafficked within Asia, Gulf and Europe. Women trafficking means it is nightmare in the dreamland. The south Asia, one of most growing regions of human trafficking. The major objectives are those factors which contributes towards women trafficking abroad. Apart from this to bring into limelight the magnitude of women trafficking in Indian ocean. Besides this is to prove that the human trafficking in women is human rights violation. Also suggest the counter –measure remedies include prevention, protection, and prosecution that how to stop this heinous crime. The qualitative and descriptive research methodology will be applied to this research paper. The socio-economic approach will be applied in this research paper to make an analysis. The data collection will take place through secondary resources i.e. Books, documentaries, news channels, journals, magazines, newspapers, survey reports and published interviews etc. at the end, the findings of research paper that from which countries mostly the women trafficking takes place through Indian ocean. Even the internal authorities are involved to support the women trafficking. </p> <p> </p> Dr. Hussan Ara Magsi Faiza Mir Mir Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Quranic and Social Studies 2023-12-25 2023-12-25 3 2 71 82 10.5281/zenodo.10450120 Ageing Issues Among the Pashtun Folk in Quetta City of Balochistan <p>Aging is an integral part of each society in the world. The advancement of medicine and technology has increased life expectancy to a determined level, which has resultantly raised the elderly population. Pakistan and generally Balochistan are also in this queue, but unfortunately, the government has not framed such policies to accommodate and secure the elderly people from the hardships of life and make them independent. This study highlights the issues of elderly people in Quetta City, where the elders are mostly illiterate and hardly adjustable in technological settings. The study was carried out through a sequential technique of non-probability sampling, where data was collected from 28 informants through an unstructured interview guide to the saturation level. The findings depict that the old cohort has several issues in the research locale. These issues are social, familial, economic, psychological, mental, emotional, healthcare, and likewise. The study suggests that the government should consider the weak segment of society and farm strategies to safeguard the rights and the fundamental life of the aging population.</p> Dr Muhammad Rahim Dr Huma zafar Muhammad Nasir Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-17 2023-12-17 3 2 83 94 10.5281/zenodo.10542481 Iqbal’s Ideal Leader: and Beacon Of Light For Contemporary Leaders <p>The concept of leadership exists in each and every nation . The leader is the mirror of the nation ,he can make or mar his nation through his good –will and ill-will .The Allama Iqbal concept of ideal leader “Mard-e-momin “is unique and carries the pivotal importance in the domain of Muslim philosophy . Allama Iqbal,s ideal leader is called as perfect man , Mard –e- Kamil is Holy Prophet (PBHP ) .He embodies all best qualities . He is practical manifestation of ideal leader and perfect man . Allama Iqbal has developed deep love and reverence for Holy Prophet .The Holy Prophet life like a mirror . He is a perfect model for entire Muslim umma .If somebody going to analyze the life of Holy Prophet from any aspect ,he will found Him an ideal person in every walk of life . Holy Prophet was ideal as a teacher ,as a commander and as a trader . He is an ideal husband and father .He established the foundation of city-state of Madina ,which is the first welfare of entire world .The charter of Madina is the first written constitution of entire world ,which incorporates the essential elements of good governance . He is an exemplary rule and give patronage to all people of various communities . The qualitative and descriptive method will be adopted in this research work .The method of content-analysis will be adopted in data analysis part .The leadership theory will be applied on this research paper to assess the qualities of great and an ideal leader .What qualities are essential for an ideal leader ?The research work will be analyzed according to the ideal leadership model .The data collection will take place through various books , journals ,magazines , newspapers and internet websites etc.In the end ,the fact will be analysed and results will be extracted .The Allama Iqbal concept of Mard-e-momin carries pivotal importance that this leader is a beacon of light for the contemporary leaders . What message Allama Iqbal wants to convey to the modern Islamic leaders that how they can change their behavior by serving their nation and adopt the best qualities by following the model of Holy Prophet ?</p> Dr Qadir Mengal Dr Hussan Ara Magsi Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-16 2023-12-16 3 2 95 105 10.5281/zenodo.10559276 Bridging Divides: The Trans-Formative Power of Inclusive Cultural Diplomacy in Shaping Global Relations <p>The purpose of this project is to explore the different aspects of cultural diplomacy. It emphasizes the inclusive and collaborative approach to global engagement proposed by authors Ien Ang, Yudhishthir Raj Isar, and Phillip Mar in their article "Cultural diplomacy: beyond the national interest?" The project explores the multifaceted nature of cultural exchanges and their potential to foster mutual understanding, dialogue, and address global challenges. It highlights the transformative power of cultural diplomacy in shaping contemporary international relations by promoting empathy and bridging divides. Additionally, the project discusses the relationship between cultural diplomacy and soft power, emphasizing how cultural diplomacy serves as a tool for exercising soft power and how soft power provides a framework for cultural diplomacy. The project also touches upon the ways cultural diplomacy and soft power are used worldwide, including cultural exchanges, language and education initiatives, cultural festivals and events, and cultural diplomacy through film and media. Furthermore, the project presents a critical evaluation of cultural diplomacy, acknowledging potential limitations and pitfalls. Finally, the project explores the significance of cultural diplomacy during the Cold War, including examples such as the Jazz Ambassadors program, cultural exchanges with the Soviet Union, and Soviet ballet tours. It highlights the role of cultural diplomacy in promoting ideological influence, enhancing international relations, shaping public opinion, and projecting soft power. The project concludes by discussing the significance of cultural diplomacy in international relations, emphasizing its role in fostering mutual understanding, promoting dialogue, and building relationships between nations.</p> Misbah Atta Dr. Sadia Siddiq Dr. Hanna-e-Kalbi Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 3 2 106 118 10.5281/zenodo.10578954 Islamic Financial Engineering Role in Combating Covid-19 Epidemic Issues: A Case Study of Pakistan <p>The world and Pakistani economies have suffered from COVID-19. MSMEs are the main victims of COVID-19. This paper evaluates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and offers policy recommendations to help them mitigate economic losses and navigate the crisis. Financial engineering integrates financial theory, engineering approaches, mathematics, and programming. Finance also involves using mathematical and computational methods to implement financial tasks. Islamic Financial Engineering (IFE) is crucial in the customer-driven derivatives sector, which involves quantitative modelling, programming, trading, and risk management of derivative products. The objective of the study is tо exрlоre whether the Islаmiс finаnсiаl engineering соntributes or not tо resоlve the issues of СОVID-19 in Раkistаn i.e: (а) tо identify the imроrtаnt rоle оf Islаmiс finаnсiаl engineering tоwаrd СОVID-19 Issues remedies in Раkistаn (b) tо identify the imроrtаnt rоle оf IFE tо соmbаt СОVID-19 issues in Раkistаn (с) tо exрlоre mоre finаnсiаl рrоduсts tо соver uр the dent оn рооr рeорle due tо соvid- 19 (d) tо imрrоve the rоle оf Islаmiс miсrоfinаnсe institutiоns with the help of IFE tools tо help the рeорle get rid of роverty (e) tо analyze роliсy imрliсаtiоns under IFE аnd reсоmmendаtiоn tо ассelerаte in аttаining the revivаl аfter СОVID-19. The study focuses on the above discussed objectives by examining the performance of MSMEs during and after COVID-19 pandemic. A comparision is given to depict the main variables in these periods i.e prior - during and after COVID-19 pandemic till July 2021. Recommndations has given to the Government and regulators of financial and non-financial sectors to arm thm to cop ith such plausible issues in future.</p> Zia Ur Rehman Prof. Dr. Abida Parveen Dr. Azam Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 3 2 119 155 10.5281/zenodo.10666645 Assess The Impact of Micro Credit Regarding Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Slum Dwelers in Quetta, Balochistan <p>Present study was attempted the socio-economic and socio-psychological impacts of micro credit scheme regarding women empowerment in slum dwellers of Quetta city. Current research was mainly qualitative by nature. Multiple interactive sessions were held to grasp on the topic and gather information. Present study was conducted from April to June 2019-20, by using semi structured questionnaire. Focused group discussion, personal interview and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) techniques were applied. 45 females as a sample size were taken from study area. Due to the diverse socio-economic and socio--cultural dynamics of province the female enumerators were hired. In order to better assess changes both in economic and social life of targeted women, current study was developed six indicators. Based on the findings of focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with respondents the study was completed and followed by drawing conclusion and suggesting recommendation for future replication of project in the province. Any empowerment effort is well executed when it includes monetary benefits. Therefore, it was recommended that the social mobilization packages with regard to women empowerment should be promoted so as to enhance the socio-economic conditions of female through the various micro credit projects.</p> Prof. Dr, Mohammad Alam Tareen Dr. Aijaz Ali Wassan Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-27 2023-12-27 3 2 156 167 10.5281/zenodo.10673336 Analysing The Discursive Tools Employed in Advertisement Campaigns of National and International Commodity Products; Linguistic Exploration of the Phenomenon of Greenwashing <p>Advertisements are considered as a form of persuasive communication employing rhetoric art. It has become a necessity for consumers and producers, to have an idea of what eco-friendly products and services can be catered. This study follows qualitative approach and analyses the discursive techniques and linguistic tools that are being used for greenwashing in selected advertisements, since, the fact that a lot of companies make use of greenwashing has a negative effect on the trust in green products and green advertisements (Chang, 2013; Aji, 2015) and consumers must be enlightened. Greenwashing not only erodes consumer confidence but that it also creates skepticism on green products in general (Aji 2015). Six flyers/ ads of different national and international commodity products’ campaigns make up the data for the present study, selected via purposive sampling. For the analysis, the Wagner and Hansen’s (2002) measurement model for advertising greenness, and TerraChoice’s model (2009) are used as theoretical-frameworks. Some of the linguistics choices found in analysis, are enlisted as follows: natural, organic, eco-friendly, green, sustainable, organically derived, free of allergies, biodegradable, etc., where green claims and print advertisements served as the groundwork for the analyses. Furthermore, findings suggest that the most common sin occurring in the category of household commodity products is the sin of vagueness since all the ads use statements that lack explanatory data of the claims. Additionally, sin of no-proof is found since the verifiable data or certification was not found during the analyses. Moreover, the sin of hidden-tradeoff is found since the product’s greenness is based on a narrow set of attributes, as suggested by analysis, lastly, sin of lesser two evils, the sin of irrelevance, fibbing, worshipping false labels are also employed for greenwashing, as suggested by the analysis. Although green is a symbol of nature, ecology, and the environment; however, it does not imply that the product is inherently ecological, thus it is recommended that this domain needs further exploration in its own right.</p> Sidra Shaikh Gul Khanda Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-03 2023-12-03 3 2 168 183 10.5281/zenodo.10752100 Critical Analysis of Laws- Regulating Criminal Investigation in Pakistan <p>A crime is a fatal factor of the society. It can only be controlled when criminals are countered and it is possible when they are properly investigated and brought to justice. For the purpose, every state has its own regulatory framework. Pakistan, being a sovereign state, has her own regulatory framework of investigation laws- consisting of procedural laws like Code of the Criminal Procedure 1898, rules like Police Rules 1934 and some directive orders/principles like Police Order 2002 and FIA Act etc. This article will explain all the steps of criminal investigation in Pakistan including common law and laws mentioned above. This article will also highlight some controversial points of legal system in Pakistan like cross FIR etc.</p> Zahir Shah Dr Attaullah Khan Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-12-09 2023-12-09 3 2 184 212 10.5281/zenodo.10865409 Excercising Power Through Coercion and Co-Opting <p>Power is a complex and controversial concept in international relations, categorized into hard power and soft power. Hard power involves military force and coercion through economic rewards or sanctions, while soft power focuses on cultural and ideological attraction to promote a country's foreign policy priorities. The effective use of power requires a nuanced understanding of how these forms interact, with hard power historically being the dominant form. In today's globalized and interconnected world, soft power is increasingly important. A thoughtful and strategic approach relying on persuasion and non-coercive measures is necessary to co-opt others to share values, goals, and agendas. Soft power has been instrumental in advancing US foreign policy objectives, with economic sanctions being a key example. However, a simplistic understanding of soft power and reliance on one form over another can be misguided and counter-productive. A balanced approach to using both hard and soft power strategies in international relations is essential, and this research would be useful for policymakers and scholars seeking to understand the complexities of power in international relations and guide their approach to diplomacy and foreign policy.</p> Dr. Hanna-e- Kalbi Wajeeha Ilyas Dr. Sadia Siddiq Copyright (c) 2023 Author 2023-11-27 2023-11-27 3 2 213 229 10.5281/zenodo.10882885